There are rules in photography, which should really be called guidelines, because the only rule in photography are that there are no rules at all! It is worth knowing these ‘rules’, either to stick to them, or break them for extra effect.
This is especially effective for landscape photography, because many guidelines apply primarily to this particular genre.
Leading Lines – Using Lines to assist the viewers eye
Lines are a valuable composition element, epecially in landscape photography. They guide the viewer in, and lead the eye to the focal point.
These are very effective, they draw the viewers eye in in and guide them across the picture. The viewer takes the image in before coming to rest on the main focal point. The ”lines” can be almost anything, from roads to walls.
Converging lines are two or more lines coming from different parts of the frame, and meeting at a single point. Converging lines are really effective in photography, because they create a passage that guides the viewers eye to the focal point. An example of this is a road, which leads the eye in until it disappears on the horizon.
Rule of Thirds
This is the first rule of composition that is taught in a photography course. While it may seem rather overused, this good old rule is still very effective You can read more here.
This can be anything, from a rock to a building, from a vivid sunset to a person. It is a point on the page to where the viewers eye is led. The point is that the eye is led to the focal point, by the use of lines, or the rule of thirds. This is to ensure that the viewer becomes mesmerized, rather than just flitting over the image, then moving on. For example, a road leading the viewers eye up the image, before meeting the horizon and allowing the viewer to take the sunset (focal point) in.
Leading Lines can also be used more subtlety, such as the arch of a building, or a twig or branch.